Lorawan is a radio that uses chirp-display spectrum modulation techniques to reach a high communication range while retaining low-performance characteristics similar to FSK modulation in physical stratified radios. LORA presents the first commercial low-cost application of the technology for a while now with applications in military and space communications.
LORA is a wireless technology that offers extended-range, power-saving and secure data transmission for M2M and IoT platforms and applications. It is based on the chirp spreading spectrum modulation and low power characteristics of FSK modulation that is used for remote communications. Lora is a radio modulation technology that allows radio waves to be manipulated to encode information in a multi-symbol format using chirping (chirping) spread spectrum technology.
LORA can be used to connect sensors, gateways, machines, devices, animals and humans. Lorawan defines the communication protocols, systems and architecture of the network, and the LORA architecture enables far-reaching communication connections. These are combined to determine the battery life of nodes, network capacity, service quality, security and other applications served by the network.
One area where Lorawan differs from other network specifications is the use of a STAR architecture in which the central node and other nodes are connected to gateways that act as a transparent bridge that relays messages from terminal devices to the central network server in the backend. Lorawan’s network architecture is built in a STAR (star topology) with gateways as a transparent bridge between the terminal devices and the network server. Gateways connect to network servers via a standard IP connection, and terminal devices use wireless single-hop communication between one or more gateways.
LORAWAN is a cloud-based Media Access Control (MAC) layer protocol that acts as a network layer protocol to manage communication between LPWAN gateways, end nodes, and device routing protocols maintained by the LORA Alliance. It is responsible for managing the frequency, data rate and performance of the devices. It addresses key requirements of the Internet of Things, such as secure bidirectional communication, mobility and service localization.
Endpoint communication is bidirectional and supports multicast to enable software upgrades over the air. The data is transmitted from terminal devices and received via several gateways as data packets from centralized network servers.
Lorawan is a data connection protocol that was developed in 2015 by the LORA Alliance to provide a low power connectivity solution for battery-powered devices [8,41]. According to Lora Alliance, a nonprofit organization developed the Lorawan specification to maintain battery life and achieve long distance connections. The current Lorawan specifications are 1.1  and the most commonly used specification is 1.3.3 .
The Lora Alliance is designed to promote interoperability between mobile operators in Lorawan who want to use unlicensed spectrum to communicate with IoT platforms and devices on their network. Lora-based devices are modules that can communicate wirelessly and are located in gateways that are equipped with antennas and have the same functionality as routers and cellular base stations.
LORA uses gateways to connect wireless devices over a local network to the Internet, much like a Wi-Fi router with Wi-Fi devices works. We can say that gateways form a path from the device to the radio frequency device at the end of the node. In addition to the underlying LORA technology, a modulation scheme called Chirp spreads across the whole spectrum and is capable of transferring over long distances and in noisy environments.
It has a Lorawan network server to manage sensor connectivity and communication. One of the most popular new IoT communication technologies, LORA (short for Long Range) is based on Lorawan Network Protocol (more on that later).
LORA ( Short for Long Range ) is a digital IoT platform technology and wireless data communication technology developed by Cycleo in Grenoble, France. LORA is based on the Lorawan network protocol and is based on Chirp Spreading Spectrum Technology (CSS) from Semtech, a major provider of Lora devices and services. The technology will be presented in two parts: LORA’s physical layer and the communication protocol that underpins it.
The server manages the device’s data rate (RF) via the scheme of Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) in order to maximize the battery life of the device and the total network capacity of the LORA network.
In order to optimize both the battery life of the end devices and network capacity for easier deployment and scaling, Lorawan manages the data rate of connected sensors using an algorithm known as ADR (Adaptive Data Rate Algorithm ). The Lora network server connects to the application servers and gateways. The network server forwards commands from the application server to the gateway and transfers data from the gateway to the application server.
Low-power wide area network (LPWAN, Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) Network or Low Power Network (LPN) is a kind of wireless telecommunications (Wide Area Network) designed to communicate over long distances with things such as connected objects such as sensors powered by batteries at low bit rates. In a way, it is the kind of network, such as a 3G network, that is built for communication between multiple devices of the Internet of Things and data collection systems where data transmission must take place. LPWAN offers a multi-year battery life and is designed for sensors and applications that need to send small data bits over long distances (several times per hour) in various environments.
LORA and Lorawan belong to the category of non-cellular LPWAN players (Wireless Communications Network Protocol) playing on unlicensed frequencies. They are key players who want to offer services to companies that want to deploy IoT platforms and applications over long distances with low capacity requirements, for example in smart cities, logistics, digital transformation projects and other use cases.